Metode Problem Based Learning untuk Mengklasifikasikan Argumen Mahasiswa PGSD terhadap Masalah

Mohammad Archi Maulyda, Dyah Indraswati, Lalu Hamdian Affandi, Nursaptini Nursaptini, Fitri Puji Astria

Abstract


Tujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah mengklasifikasikan jenis-jenis argument yang diberikan mahasiswa ketika menyelesaikan masalah. Metode penelitian yang gunakan adalah pendekatan kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif. Subjek penelitian adalah 50 mahasiswa PGSD Universitas Mataram yang telah melaksanakan perkuliahan dengan metode PBL. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa argument mahasiswa terbagi menjadi 3 jenis kategori yakni, (1) True-False Argument; (2) Good-Bad Argument; dan (3) PolicyArgument. Jenis argument yang paling sering digunakan mahasiswa adalah True-False Argumen dimana subjek dalam kelompok ini cenderung memberikan pernyataan untuk membenarkan pendapatnya atau menyanggah pendapat orang lain. Sedangakan subjek dalam kelompok Good-Bad Argument cenderung melihat argument berdasarkan kebermanfaatan dan implementasi pernyataanya secara nyata. Untuk jenis argument Policy Argument subjek dalam kelompok ini cenderung tidak menggunakan teori-teori individual (personal) namun menggunakan data Undang-Undang atau kebijakan pemerintah sebagai landasan argumenya.


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References


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Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. In Educational Research (Vol. 4). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

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Dolmans, D. H. J. M., Loyens, S. M. M., Marcq, H., & Gijbels, D. (2016). Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature. In Advances in Health Sciences Education (p. 215). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-015-9645-6

Eemeren, F. H. Van, Frans, H., & Garssen, B. (2010). Pondering on Problems of Argumentation: Twenty Essays on Theoretical Issues. In Argumentation Library (Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 112–115). Springer.

Gavgani, V. Z., Hazrati, H., & Ghojazadeh, M. (2015). The Efficacy of Digital Case Scenario Versus Paper Case Scenario On Clinical Reasoning in Problem-Based Learning : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Res Dev Med Educational, 4(1), 17–22. https://doi.org/10.15171/rdme.2015.003

Gustina, & Miaz, Y. (2019). Peningkatan Aktivitas dan Hasil Belajar Materi Gejala Alam Melalui Pendekatan Saintifik Model Doscovery Learning Metode Diskusi Kelompok di Kelas VI SD Negeri 54 Payakumbuh. Jurnal Basicedu: Research & Learning in Elementary Education, 3(2), 428–434.

Hendarto, P., & Adi, B. (2019). Validity of guided inquiry-based modules on digestive system to improve argumentation skill. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 5(1), 127–140.

Ijirana, & Nadjamuddin, L. (2019). Time Series Study of Problem Solving Ability of Tadulako University Students Using Metacognitive Skill Based Learning Model. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy, 14(21), 227–234.

Indraswati, D. (2018). Efektivitas Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Numbered Heads Together ( NHT ) Terhadap : Kompetensi Sikap Siswa , Kompetensi. JOURNAL RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS : ECONOMY, 1(2), 52–58.

Indraswati, D., Marhayani, D. A., Sutisna, D., Widodo, A., & Maulyda, M. A. (2020). Critical Thinking Dan Problem Solving Dalam Pembelajaran Ips Untuk Menjawab Tantangan. Sosial Horizon, 7(1), 12–28. https://doi.org/10.31571/sosial.v7i1.1540

Maulyda, A. M., Hidayati, V. R., Erfan, M., Umar, & Sutisna, D. (2020). Kesalahan Komunikasi Matematis (Tertulis) Siswa Ketika Memahami Soal Cerita. Jurnal Karya Pendidikan Matematika, 7(1), 1–7.

Maulyda, M. A., Annizar, A. M., Hidayati, V. R., & Mukhlis, M. (2020). Analysis of students ’ verbal and written mathematical communication error in solving word problem. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1538(012083), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1538/1/012083

Maulyda, M. A., & Hidayati, V. R. (2019). Representasi Matematis Visual Anak Ditinjau dari Bakat Musik. EDU-MAT: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 7(2), 149–158. https://doi.org/10.20527/edumat.v7i2.6855

Mazilu, S. (2017). The Use of Analogy in Pro-Life Argumentation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 12(3), 55–78.

Myklebust, H., & Høisæter, S. (2018). Written Argumentation for Different Audiences. A Study of Addressivity and the Uses of Arguments in Argumentative Student Texts. Acta Didactica Norge, 12(3), 10. https://doi.org/10.5617/adno.4727

N, W. D., Reed, C., & Macagno, F. (2013). Argumentation Schemes. In Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (p. 443). Cambridge University Press.

Nofitasari, A., Yuana, R. A., & Maryono, D. (2019). The Use of Robomind Application in Problem Based Learning Model to Enhance Student’s Understanding in the Conceptual Programming Algorithm. Indonesian Journal of Informatics Education, 1(1), 1–11.

Osborne, J. (2017). Towards a more social pedagogy in science education: the role of argumentation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 7(1), 1–16.

Santoso, B., Putri, D. H., & Medriati, R. (2020). Upaya Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar dan Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Siswa Melalui Model Problem Based Learning Berbantu Alat Peraga Konsep Gerak Lurus. Jurnal Kumparan Fisika, 3(1), 11–18.

Savchuk, T. N. (2017). Classificaton Schemes of Argumentation in The Humanities Discourse: On the Material of Russian and Belarusian Texts. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 16(1), 97–108.

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective. In Reading (1st ed.). Focus on ExCale.

Siegel, H. (1995). Why Should Educators Care about Argumentation? Informal Logic, 17(2), 159–176. https://doi.org/10.22329/il.v17i2.2405

Sunaringtyas, A. D., Asikin, M., & Junaedi, I. (2017). The Student ’ s Analysis of Creative Thinking Process in Solving Open Problems Viewed from Wallas Model on Problem Based Learning Model. Unnes Journal of Mathematics Education, 6(3), 287–293. https://doi.org/10.15294/ujme.v6i3.16084

Sutisna, D., Indraswati, D., & Sobri, M. (2019). Keteladanan Guru sebagai Sarana Penerapan Pendidikan KaraAnugrahana, A. (2013). Tinjauan Deskriptif Penerapan Higher Order Thinking dan Problem-Based Learning Pada Mata Kuliah Geometri Berdasarkan Kemampuan Matematika Mahasiswa. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pembelajaran Khatulistiwa, 3(2), 142–156.

Boell, S. K., & Hovorka, D. S. (2019). Writing, Arguing, Contributing - A Cogent Argumentation Framework for Identifying, Specifying, and Evaluating Research Contribution. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 23(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1857

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. In Educational Research (Vol. 4). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Davidson, N., & Major, C. H. (2014). Boundary Crossings: Cooperative Learning, Collaborative Learning, and Problem-Based Learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 13(5), 43–67.

Dolmans, D. H. J. M., Loyens, S. M. M., Marcq, H., & Gijbels, D. (2016). Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature. In Advances in Health Sciences Education (p. 215). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-015-9645-6

Eemeren, F. H. Van, Frans, H., & Garssen, B. (2010). Pondering on Problems of Argumentation: Twenty Essays on Theoretical Issues. In Argumentation Library (Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 112–115). Springer.

Gavgani, V. Z., Hazrati, H., & Ghojazadeh, M. (2015). The Efficacy of Digital Case Scenario Versus Paper Case Scenario On Clinical Reasoning in Problem-Based Learning : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Res Dev Med Educational, 4(1), 17–22. https://doi.org/10.15171/rdme.2015.003

Gustina, & Miaz, Y. (2019). Peningkatan Aktivitas dan Hasil Belajar Materi Gejala Alam Melalui Pendekatan Saintifik Model Doscovery Learning Metode Diskusi Kelompok di Kelas VI SD Negeri 54 Payakumbuh. Jurnal Basicedu: Research & Learning in Elementary Education, 3(2), 428–434.

Hendarto, P., & Adi, B. (2019). Validity of guided inquiry-based modules on digestive system to improve argumentation skill. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 5(1), 127–140.

Ijirana, & Nadjamuddin, L. (2019). Time Series Study of Problem Solving Ability of Tadulako University Students Using Metacognitive Skill Based Learning Model. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy, 14(21), 227–234.

Indraswati, D. (2018). Efektivitas Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Numbered Heads Together ( NHT ) Terhadap : Kompetensi Sikap Siswa , Kompetensi. JOURNAL RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS : ECONOMY, 1(2), 52–58.

Indraswati, D., Marhayani, D. A., Sutisna, D., Widodo, A., & Maulyda, M. A. (2020). Critical Thinking Dan Problem Solving Dalam Pembelajaran Ips Untuk Menjawab Tantangan. Sosial Horizon, 7(1), 12–28. https://doi.org/10.31571/sosial.v7i1.1540

Maulyda, A. M., Hidayati, V. R., Erfan, M., Umar, & Sutisna, D. (2020). Kesalahan Komunikasi Matematis (Tertulis) Siswa Ketika Memahami Soal Cerita. Jurnal Karya Pendidikan Matematika, 7(1), 1–7.

Maulyda, M. A., Annizar, A. M., Hidayati, V. R., & Mukhlis, M. (2020). Analysis of students ’ verbal and written mathematical communication error in solving word problem. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1538(012083), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1538/1/012083

Maulyda, M. A., & Hidayati, V. R. (2019). Representasi Matematis Visual Anak Ditinjau dari Bakat Musik. EDU-MAT: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 7(2), 149–158. https://doi.org/10.20527/edumat.v7i2.6855

Mazilu, S. (2017). The Use of Analogy in Pro-Life Argumentation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 12(3), 55–78.

Myklebust, H., & Høisæter, S. (2018). Written Argumentation for Different Audiences. A Study of Addressivity and the Uses of Arguments in Argumentative Student Texts. Acta Didactica Norge, 12(3), 10. https://doi.org/10.5617/adno.4727

N, W. D., Reed, C., & Macagno, F. (2013). Argumentation Schemes. In Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (p. 443). Cambridge University Press.

Nofitasari, A., Yuana, R. A., & Maryono, D. (2019). The Use of Robomind Application in Problem Based Learning Model to Enhance Student’s Understanding in the Conceptual Programming Algorithm. Indonesian Journal of Informatics Education, 1(1), 1–11.

Osborne, J. (2017). Towards a more social pedagogy in science education: the role of argumentation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 7(1), 1–16.

Santoso, B., Putri, D. H., & Medriati, R. (2020). Upaya Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar dan Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Siswa Melalui Model Problem Based Learning Berbantu Alat Peraga Konsep Gerak Lurus. Jurnal Kumparan Fisika, 3(1), 11–18.

Savchuk, T. N. (2017). Classificaton Schemes of Argumentation in The Humanities Discourse: On the Material of Russian and Belarusian Texts. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 16(1), 97–108.

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective. In Reading (1st ed.). Focus on ExCale.

Siegel, H. (1995). Why Should Educators Care about Argumentation? Informal Logic, 17(2), 159–176. https://doi.org/10.22329/il.v17i2.2405

Sunaringtyas, A. D., Asikin, M., & Junaedi, I. (2017). The Student ’ s Analysis of Creative Thinking Process in Solving Open Problems Viewed from Wallas Model on Problem Based Learning Model. Unnes Journal of Mathematics Education, 6(3), 287–293. https://doi.org/10.15294/ujme.v6i3.16084

Sutisna, D., Indraswati, D., & Sobri, M. (2019). Keteladanan Guru sebagai Sarana Penerapan Pendidikan Karakter Siswa. Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Indonesia, 4(2), 29–33. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.26737/jpdi.v4i2.1236

Walton, D. (2018). Witness Impeachment in Cross-Examination Using AD Hominem Argumentation. Studies in Logic, 55(68), 93–114. https://doi.org/10.2478/slgr-2018-0030

Widodo, A., Husniati, H., Indraswati, D., Rahmatih, A. N., & Novitasari, S. (2020). Prestasi belajar mahasiswa PGSD pada mata kuliah pengantar pendidikan ditinjau dari segi minat baca. Jurnal Bidang Pendidikan Dasar, 4(1)Anugrahana, A. (2013). Tinjauan Deskriptif Penerapan Higher Order Thinking dan Problem-Based Learning Pada Mata Kuliah Geometri Berdasarkan Kemampuan Matematika Mahasiswa. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pembelajaran Khatulistiwa, 3(2), 142–156.

Boell, S. K., & Hovorka, D. S. (2019). Writing, Arguing, Contributing - A Cogent Argumentation Framework for Identifying, Specifying, and Evaluating Research Contribution. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 23(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1857

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. In Educational Research (Vol. 4). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Davidson, N., & Major, C. H. (2014). Boundary Crossings: Cooperative Learning, Collaborative Learning, and Problem-Based Learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 13(5), 43–67.

Dolmans, D. H. J. M., Loyens, S. M. M., Marcq, H., & Gijbels, D. (2016). Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature. In Advances in Health Sciences Education (p. 215). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-015-9645-6

Eemeren, F. H. Van, Frans, H., & Garssen, B. (2010). Pondering on Problems of Argumentation: Twenty Essays on Theoretical Issues. In Argumentation Library (Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 112–115). Springer.

Gavgani, V. Z., Hazrati, H., & Ghojazadeh, M. (2015). The Efficacy of Digital Case Scenario Versus Paper Case Scenario On Clinical Reasoning in Problem-Based Learning : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Res Dev Med Educational, 4(1), 17–22. https://doi.org/10.15171/rdme.2015.003

Gustina, & Miaz, Y. (2019). Peningkatan Aktivitas dan Hasil Belajar Materi Gejala Alam Melalui Pendekatan Saintifik Model Doscovery Learning Metode Diskusi Kelompok di Kelas VI SD Negeri 54 Payakumbuh. Jurnal Basicedu: Research & Learning in Elementary Education, 3(2), 428–434.

Hendarto, P., & Adi, B. (2019). Validity of guided inquiry-based modules on digestive system to improve argumentation skill. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 5(1), 127–140.

Ijirana, & Nadjamuddin, L. (2019). Time Series Study of Problem Solving Ability of Tadulako University Students Using Metacognitive Skill Based Learning Model. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy, 14(21), 227–234.

Indraswati, D. (2018). Efektivitas Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Numbered Heads Together ( NHT ) Terhadap : Kompetensi Sikap Siswa , Kompetensi. JOURNAL RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS : ECONOMY, 1(2), 52–58.

Indraswati, D., Marhayani, D. A., Sutisna, D., Widodo, A., & Maulyda, M. A. (2020). Critical Thinking Dan Problem Solving Dalam Pembelajaran Ips Untuk Menjawab Tantangan. Sosial Horizon, 7(1), 12–28. https://doi.org/10.31571/sosial.v7i1.1540

Maulyda, A. M., Hidayati, V. R., Erfan, M., Umar, & Sutisna, D. (2020). Kesalahan Komunikasi Matematis (Tertulis) Siswa Ketika Memahami Soal Cerita. Jurnal Karya Pendidikan Matematika, 7(1), 1–7.

Maulyda, M. A., Annizar, A. M., Hidayati, V. R., & Mukhlis, M. (2020). Analysis of students ’ verbal and written mathematical communication error in solving word problem. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1538(012083), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1538/1/012083

Maulyda, M. A., & Hidayati, V. R. (2019). Representasi Matematis Visual Anak Ditinjau dari Bakat Musik. EDU-MAT: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 7(2), 149–158. https://doi.org/10.20527/edumat.v7i2.6855

Mazilu, S. (2017). The Use of Analogy in Pro-Life Argumentation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 12(3), 55–78.

Myklebust, H., & Høisæter, S. (2018). Written Argumentation for Different Audiences. A Study of Addressivity and the Uses of Arguments in Argumentative Student Texts. Acta Didactica Norge, 12(3), 10. https://doi.org/10.5617/adno.4727

N, W. D., Reed, C., & Macagno, F. (2013). Argumentation Schemes. In Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (p. 443). Cambridge University Press.

Nofitasari, A., Yuana, R. A., & Maryono, D. (2019). The Use of Robomind Application in Problem Based Learning Model to Enhance Student’s Understanding in the Conceptual Programming Algorithm. Indonesian Journal of Informatics Education, 1(1), 1–11.

Osborne, J. (2017). Towards a more social pedagogy in science education: the role of argumentation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 7(1), 1–16.

Santoso, B., Putri, D. H., & Medriati, R. (2020). Upaya Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar dan Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Siswa Melalui Model Problem Based Learning Berbantu Alat Peraga Konsep Gerak Lurus. Jurnal Kumparan Fisika, 3(1), 11–18.

Savchuk, T. N. (2017). Classificaton Schemes of Argumentation in The Humanities Discourse: On the Material of Russian and Belarusian Texts. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 16(1), 97–108.

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective. In Reading (1st ed.). Focus on ExCale.

Siegel, H. (1995). Why Should Educators Care about Argumentation? Informal Logic, 17(2), 159–176. https://doi.org/10.22329/il.v17i2.2405

Sunaringtyas, A. D., Asikin, M., & Junaedi, I. (2017). The Student ’ s Analysis of Creative Thinking Process in Solving Open Problems Viewed from Wallas Model on Problem Based Learning Model. Unnes Journal of Mathematics Education, 6(3), 287–293. https://doi.org/10.15294/ujme.v6i3.16084

Sutisna, D., Indraswati, D., & Sobri, M. (2019). Keteladanan Guru sebagai Sarana Penerapan Pendidikan Karakter Siswa. Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Indonesia, 4(2), 29–33. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.26737/jpdi.v4i2.1236

Walton, D. (2018). Witness Impeachment in Cross-Examination Using AD Hominem Argumentation. Studies in Logic, 55(68), 93–114. https://doi.org/10.2478/slgr-2018-0030

Widodo, A., Husniati, H., Indraswati, D., Rahmatih, A. N., & Novitasari, S. (2020). Prestasi belajar mahasiswa PGSD pada mata kuliah pengantar pendidikan ditinjau dari segi minat baca. Jurnal Bidang Pendidikan Dasar, 4(1), 26–36. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21067/jbpd.v4i1.3808

, 26–36. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21067/jbpd.v4i1.3808

kter Siswa. Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Indonesia, 4(2), 29–33. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.26737/jpdi.v4i2.1236

Walton, D. (2018). Witness Impeachment in Cross-Examination Using AD Hominem Argumentation. Studies in Logic, 55(68), 93–114. https://doi.org/10.2478/slgr-2018-0030

Widodo, A., Husniati, H., Indraswati, D., Rahmatih, A. N., & Novitasari, S. (2020). Prestasi belajar mahasiswa PGSD pada mata kuliah pengantar pendidikan ditinjau dari segi minat baca. Jurnal Bidang Pendidikan Dasar, 4(1), 26–36. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21067/jbpd.v4i1.3808




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18592/aladzkapgmi.v10i2.3775

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