KEYAKINAN SEBELUM ILMU KALAM: AKTUALISASI IMAN, TAKDIR, DAN KESALEHAN DI MASA ISLAM AWAL

Mohammad Yunus Masrukhin

Abstract


This paper seeks to problematize—in the sense of Michel Foucault’s term—the study conducted by Shahab Ahmed about the scientific practices that occurred in the early Islamic period which focused on the study of the history of satanic verses. This article examines the more basic scientific practice of acceptance of the verse, which is a theological practice which represents the faith and the piety through the controversy of destiny. Benefited from theory of discourse and archaeology of knowledge, it argues that before the formative theological discourse, faith was understood as an ontological ethos present in the practical religion. It becomes a fluid, conceptualized understanding based on each other's religious experiences. Theological practice is intensively discussed among Muslims after the emergence of the controversy of free will concept presented by Ma'bad al-Juhani and responded by Abdullah b. Umar. The response represents the theological practice as an alternative to mainstream theological practice. It comes in the form of practical and individual polemics without being normalized in certain of epistemological systems of theological school. This article concludes that before the normalization of Kalam, faith was understood as an inclusive, liquid, and historically dialectical Islamic ethos based on the practical religious challenges of the Muslim community. 

Tulisan ini berusaha melakukan problematisasi—dalam istilah Michel Foucault—terhadap objek kajian yang dilakukan oleh Shahab Ahmed tentang praktik keilmuan yang terjadi pada masa Islam awal yang difokuskan pada kajian tentang riwayat ayat-ayat setan. Artikel ini juga mengkaji tentang praktik keilmuan yang lebih mendasar dari penerimaan terhadap ayat tersebut, yakni praktik teologis yang menjadi representasi dari iman dan kesalehan melalui kontroversi takdir. Menggunakan teori diskursus dan arkeologi pengetahuan, artikel ini mengargumentasikan bahwa sebelum terbentuknya diskursifikasi teologis, iman dipahami sebagai etos ontologis. Iman menjadi pemahaman privatif yang cair dan dikonsepkan berdasarkan pengalaman keagamaan masing-masing. Praktik teologis dipantik untuk didiskursfikasikan secara lebih intensif setelah muncul kontroversi takdir yang dihadirkan oleh Ma’bad al-Juhani yang direspons oleh Abdullah b. Umar. Respons tersebut menandai adanya praktik teologis sehingga mampu memberikan respon terhadap isu yang digulirkan untuk mencari alternatif dari praktik teologis yang komunal. Hal tersebut hadir dalam bentuk polemik praktis dan individual tanpa dinisbatkan pada sistem epistemologis tertentu yang baku dan ketat. Artikel ini berkesimpulan bahwa sebelum munculnya ilmu kalam,iman dipahami sebagai etos keberislaman praktis yang terbuka, cair, dan berdialektika secara historis berdasarkan pada tantangan keagamaan praktis masyarakat Muslim. 

 


Keywords


Iman; Kesalehan; Takdir; Kontroversi; Kalam

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18592/khazanah.v19i2.4880

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