Syarifuddin Syarifuddin


In an attempt to improve the learners’ speaking proficiency in EFL, the demand to teach speaking English is increasing more and more in all levels of education in Indonesia. Many kinds of strategies are applied in teaching and learning process of speaking in order to enable the leaners to perform the microskills and macroskills  of communication. The widely accepted instructional method in EFL is Communicative Language Teaching which emphasizes  that the goal of  language learning is to increase learners’ communicative competence. The competence  includes   grammatical competence,  discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence, and strategic competence as the undrelying abilities of speaking proficiency. Therefore,  it is the main purpose of this paper to depict the way in which teaching speaking  should encourage  learners to engage  in appropriate speaking  activities both inside and outside the classroom  to gain communicative competence.  Classroom learning is one way to practice and learn speaking, but multitudes of opportunities for learning and practicing speaking exist outside the classroom in English context.  So, the learners need  to be encouraged to develop speaking habit and use it in real life communication.


Teaching Speaking, Communicative Competence, Speaking Proficiency.

Full Text:



Brown, H. Douglas. (2007). Teaching by Principle: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. San Fransisco: Longman.

Brown, H. Douglas. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. San Fransisco: Longman.

Burns, A. And Joyce, H. (1999). Focus on Speaking. Sydney: Macquarie University.

Clark, H. H. and Clark, E.V. (1977). Psychology and language: An Introduction to psycholinguistics. New York: Harcourt Brace, Jovanovich Publishers.

Dornyei, Zoltan. (2002). Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Finocchiaro, Mary and Brumfit, Christopher. 1985. The Functional-Notional Approach: from Theory to Practice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Folse, Keith S. (2007). The Art of Teaching Speaking: A Research and Pedagogy for the ESL/EFL Classroom. USA: The University of Michigan Press.

Hadley, Alice Omaggio. (1993). Teaching Language in Context. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

Harmer, Jeremy. (1996). The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Longman.

Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching. China: Pearson Longman.

Huda, Nuril. (1999). Language Learning and Teaching: Issues and Trends. Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang Press.

Kamiya, Masashito. (2007). The Role of Communicative Competence in L2 Learning. (Online). Retrieved March 14, 2011 from (

Lado, Robert (1991). Language Testing. London: Longman.

Liu, Wen-chung. (2006). Memorization and Improvisation: a Comparison of Two Strategies in the Oral Acquisition of English as a Second Language. Australia, Australia Catholic University. Dissertation (Online). Retrieved April 20, 2011 from (

Nunan, David. (1996). Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for Teachers. New York: Prentice Hall.

Richards, Jack C, Renandya.( 2002). Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, Jack C. and Rogers, Theodore S. (2002). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Savignon, Sandra J. (1983). Communicative Competence: Theory and Classroom Practice. California: Addison-WESLEY Publishing.

Shumin, Kang. (2002). Factors to Consider: Developing Adult EFL Students’ Speaking Abilities. In Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice (204-211). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ur, Penny. (1996). A Course in Language Teaching. Practical and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zhang, Xinhai (2004). Practical Activities for Developing Speaking Skill of Chinese Middle School Students. Sino-US English Teaching, April 2004, Vol. 1, No. 4 (serial No. 4) . (Online). Retrieved March 20, 2011 from (



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Syarifuddin Syarifuddin

Printed ISSN : 2086-9606 | Online ISSN  : 2549-2454



LET Journal Indexed by:

Creative Commons License
LET (LINGUISTICS, LITERATURE, AND LANGUAGE TEACHING) licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.