Yulia Isnaini, Ali Saukah, Johannes A Prayogo


This study was intended to apply scaffolding technique as a teaching technique to solve the problems in the teaching and learning of writing report text. The research design used in this study was a Collaborative Classroom Action Research which had been conducted in two cycles. The subjects of this study were 32 eleventh graders of XI IPA 6 at SMAN 5 Mataram in academic year 2012/2013. The research instruments used to get the data were interview, questionnaire, observation checklists, field notes, and writing task.This article highlights the potential of the scaffolding technique integrated through the process approach-with which students go through a write-rewrite process; prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing  in giving students chance to work in real, live process of how real writer engages in the process of writing. However, the most important finding is the technique could improve the ability of students’ writing ability in writing report text.


writing ability, scaffolding, process writing approach, classroom action research.

Full Text:



Anderson, M & Anderson, K. (1997). Text Types in English 2. South Yarra: Macmilan Education Australia.

Badger, R. & White, G. (2000).A Process Genre Approach to Teaching Writing.ELT Journa Volume 54/2l (Online), (, accessed on November 21, 2012.

Bass, J. (2010). The Teacher’s Big Book of Graphic Organizers. San Francisco: Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Brown, H.D. (2007.) Teaching by Principle: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (3rd Ed). White Plains, New York: Longman Pearson Education, Inc.

Brown, H. D. 2004. Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. White Plains, New York: Longman Pearson Education Inc.

Burns, A. (2010). Doing Action Research in English Language Teaching: A Guide for Practitioners. New York: Routledge.

Byrne, D. (1984). Teaching Writing Skill. Essex: Longman.

Carroll, J.A & Wilson, E.E. (1993). Acts of Teaching: How to Teach Writing. Colorado: Teacher Ideas Press.

Chen, L. (2009). The Role of Revision and Teacher Feedback in Chinese College Context.CCSE English Language Teaching, (Online), 2 (4):162-166, (, accessed on November 24, 2012.

Chien, C. L. (2007). Graphic Organisers as Scaffolding for Students’ Revision in the Pre-writing stage. In ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning. Proceedings ascilite Singapore 2007, (Online), (, accessed on December 3, 2012.

Devlin, B. (2000) The Scaffolding Literacy Approach. NTIER Newsletter.Vol 5:1,

(Online), ( html), accessed on December 6th, 2012.

Crandall, J. (2006). The Power of Writing: The Importance of Writing in EFL. (Online), (, accessed on Decemeber 3rd 2012.

Galea, S. R & Nair, P. (2008).The Use of Scaffolding Strategies Among ESL Learners in the Comprehension of Literary Texts. Indonesian Journal of English Language TeachingVolume 4/Number 2. October 2008.

Gardner, P. (2005). New Directions: Reading, Writing, and Critical Thinking (2nd). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Harmer, J. (2000).How to Teach English: An Introduction to the Practice of English Language Teaching. Edinburg Gate: Addison Wesley Longman.

Harmer, J. (20040.How to Teach Writing. Edinburg Gate: Addison Wesley Longman.

Hinkel, E. (20040.Teaching Academic ESL Writing: Practical Techniques in Vocabulary and Grammar. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

Hyland, K. (2003). Second Language Writing. In Jack. C. Richards (Ed). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Housden, E. (2008).Senior Text Types; A writing Guide for Students. Queensland: Farr Books.

Irwandi. (2012). Using Mind Mapping to Improve the Eleventh Graders’ Ability in Writing Report Text at SMAN 8 Malang. Unpublished Thesis: State University of Malang.

Isnawati, U. M. (2009). Improving the Writing Ability of the 11th Grade Students of MA HasyimAsyari Kembang Bahu Through the Implementation of Scaffolding Strategy. Unpublished Thesis. Malang: State University of Malang

Kasmiani. (2010). The Implementation of Scaffolding in Improving Students’ Activeness in Writing. JurnalKependidikanTriadik, (Online), Volume 13, No.1, (, accessed on April 20, 2012.

Knapp, P & Watkins, M. (2005).Genre, Text, Grammar, Technologies for Teaching and Assessing Writing. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

Laksmi, E. D. (2006). Scaffolding Students’ Writing in EFL Class: Implementing Process Approach. TEFLIN Journal, Volume 17, Number 2.

Latief, M.A. (2009). Classroom Action Research in Language Learning, (Online), (, accessed on April 20, 2012.

Latief, M.A. (2010). Tanya JawabMetodePenelitianPembelajaranBahasa. Malang: State University of Malang.

Lin, B. (2006).Vygotskian Principles in a Genre-Based Approach to Teaching Writing, (Online).(, accessed on November 24th 2012.

Lawson, L. (2002).Scaffolding as a Teaching Strategy. City College.EDUC 0500.

Longman Advanced American Dictionary. 2007. Harlow, Essesx: Longman.

Muliasih, S. (2010). The Use of Scaffolding Technique to Improve the Students’ Competence in Writing Genre-Based Text.Parole, (Online), Vol.2, No.1, April 2010.

McKenzie, J. (1999). From Now on the Education Technology Journal, Chapter 19-Scaffolding for Success in Beyond Technology: Questioning, Research and the Information Literate School Community, 9(4), December 1999, (Online), (, accessed on December 3, 2012.

Miller, K. W. (2012). Scaffolding Improvement in Writing Instruction: An Action

Research Project. Thesis: Utah State University.

Ningrum, A. S. B. (2012). Scaffolding Strategy in the Process of Writing to Improve the Students’ Writing Ability, Jakarta: Kementrian Agama Republik Indonesia.

Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinle&Heinle.

O’Malley, J. M & Pierce, L.V. 1996. Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners: Practical Approach for Teachers. Virginia: Addison-Wesley Publishing.

Oshima, A. & Hogue, A. (2007). Introduction to Academic Writing (3rd Edition). New York: Addison-Wesley Longman.

Oshima, A. & Hogue, A. (2006). Writing Academic English (4th Edition). New York: Longman.

Raimes, A. (1983).Techniques in Teaching Writing. New York: Oxford University Press.

Richards, J. C. &Renandya, (2002).W. A. Methodology of Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. New York:Cambridge University Press.

Rosenshine, B &Meinster, C. (1992).The Use of Scaffolds for Teaching Higher-

Level Cognitive Strategies. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Slavin. R. E. (2003). Educational Psychology Theory and Practice. 7/E. Boston:


Solikhah. (2012). Implementing Scaffolding Strategy to Improve the Writing Ability in Writing Exposition Texts of Grade XI Students of SMAN 1 Bangil.Unpublished Thesis: State University of Malang.

Vernon, L. (2000). The Writing Process: A Scaffolding Approach. ( proocess.pdf), accessed on November 21, 2012.

Verenikina, I. (2004). From Theory to Practice: What does the Metaphor of Scaffolding Mean to Educators Today?.Outlines.No. 2. 2004. (Online), accessed on November 21, 2012.

Wakhid, A. (2011).Teaching Students to Write Report Text in English.In B.Y. Cahyono (Ed.), Teaching English by Using Various Text Types. Malang: Malang State University Press.

Weigle, S.C. (2002). Assessing Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Weir, C. J. (1990).Communicative Language Testing. New York: Prentice Hall International.

Widiati, U &Widayati. S. Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking-Writing Connection. TEFLIN Journal, Volume VIII Number 1, August 1997.

Yangrifqi, N. (2012).The Effectiveness of Scaffold and Conferencing on the Senior High Scholl Students’ Ability in Writing Narrative and Descriptive Text.Unpublished Thesis: State University of Malang.

Yan. G. (2005). A Process genre Approach Model for Teaching Writing.English Teaching Forum, (Online), 13 (3), (http://exchanges.state.gove/englishteaching/forom/archieves/docs/15-43-3-d.pdf), accessed on November 21, 2012.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Yulia Isnaini, Ali Saukah, Johannes A Prayogo

Printed ISSN : 2086-9606 | Online ISSN  : 2549-2454



LET Journal Indexed by:

Creative Commons License
LET (LINGUISTICS, LITERATURE, AND LANGUAGE TEACHING) licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.