POLEMIK ANTARA ANTROPOSENTRISME DAN EKOSENTRISME DALAM PERSPEKTIF FILSAFAT MULLA SADRA

Otong Sulaeman, R.W. Setiabudi Sumadinata, Dina Yulianti

Abstract


Ecological problems in the world have become increasingly worrisome and their solutions require global cooperation. In the West, this ecological problem creates a philosophical polemic between two camps, namely anthropocentrism and eco-centrism; which in the study of International Relations is known as the green theoryGiven that 24% of the world's population is Muslim, who make up the majority in 49 countries, it is necessary to develop a 'green theory' based on Islamic philosophy. Through this paper, the author elaborates on Mulla Sadra's philosophical thoughts regarding the human position cosmologically in relation to the polemic between anthropocentrism and eco-centrism. There are four Mulla Sadra principles related to humans, namely (1) the principle of unity among all beings in the universe, (2) the principle of causality that connects every being, in which humans have a central and determining role in this causal system, (3) the principle of tajalliy which states that every existence in this universe is the appearance and incarnation of God, so that any attempt to destroy the ecosystem will basically harm man himself, and (4) the human principle as an intermediary for other forms in reaching perfection. Based on these four principles, Sadra stated that humans have a very central position in the middle of the universe. However, in contrast to anthropocentrism, which views humans as having the right to exploit nature, Sadra places humans as people responsible for managing nature.

Masalah ekologi di dunia telah semakin mengkhawatirkan dan penyelesaiannya membutuhkan kerjasama global. Di Barat, masalah ekologis ini menciptakan polemik filosofis di antara dua kubu, yaitu antroposentrisme dan ekosentrisme; yang dalam kajian Hubungan Internasional dikenal dengan sebagai teori hijau (green theory). Mengingat 24% populasi dunia adalah Muslim yang menjadi mayoritas di 49 negara, perlu dikembangkan ‘teori hijau’ yang berbasis filsafat Islam. Melalui tulisan ini, penulis mengelaborasi pemikiran filsafat Mulla Sadra terkait dengan posisi manusia secara kosmologis dihubungkan dengan polemik di antara antroposentrisme dan ekosentrisme. Ada empat prinsip Mulla Sadra  terkait manusia, yaitu (1) prinsip kesatuan di antara semua wujud di alam semesta, (2) prinsip kausalitas yang menghubungkan setiap wujud, di mana manusia memiliki peran sentral dan menentukan dalam sistem kausailtas ini, (3) prinsip tajalliy yang menyatakan bahwa setiap maujud di alam semesta ini merupakan tampilan dan jelmaan Tuhan, sehingga setiap upaya merusak ekosistem pada dasarnya akan merugikan manusia itu sendiri, dan (4) prinsip manusia sebagai perantara bagi wujud-wujud lainnya dalam menggapai kesempurnaan. Berdasarkan keempat prinsip ini, Sadra menyatakan bahwa manusia memiliki posisi yang sangat sentral di tengah alam semesta. Namun berbeda dengan antroposentrisme yang memandang manusia berhak mengeksploitasi alam, Sadra menempatkan manusia sebagai pihak yang bertanggung jawab manusia dalam pengelolaan alam. 


Keywords


Antroposentrisme; Ekologi; Filsafat Islam; Mulla Sadra; Teori Hijau

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18592/khazanah.v19i2.4914

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