ULAMA-DIFABEL: MENARASIKAN EKSPRESI KULTURAL MASYARAKAT BANJAR DALAM LENSA STUDI DISABILITAS

Barkatullah Amin

Abstract


Ulama in Banjar society take place as religious elite whose roles are very important. They used to be treated specially in practice, like being honored and respected. However, what if there is Ulama who is physically and mentally different (difabel). Do people treat differently? How do people then perceive it? This paper aims to see how the attitudes and views of people in the Banjar community towards the “Ulama-Difabel” – Islamic scholars with disabilities who participate in religious and community activities. This is a qualitative research with ethnography approach. It uses social model of disability theory. the results of this study explain that although the government has ratified the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 19 of 2011 concerning the Ratification of the CRPD, however, it cannot be called as the sole reason for the establishment of an inclusive paradigm that develops in society in a dominant way. In spite of that, the Banjar people interpret the existence of diffable scholars as a transcendent phenomenon because of the normative influence, metaphysical, and theological (Islam Banjar) views which both encourage each other to form social constructs with a paradigm of the Social Model of Disability in Banjar society. This phenomenon is also affected by some factors like people’s understanding toward diffabled condition, culture, education, and religious doctrine accepted. 

Ulama dalam masyarakat Banjar menempati posisi sebagai elit keagamaan yang perannya sangat penting. Sehingga pada praktiknya ulama sering mendapatkan perlakuan spesial, seperti dimuliakan dan dihormati. Namun, bagaimana jika ada ulama yang memiliki perbedaan pada fisik ataupun mentalnya (difabel), apakah perlakuan masyarakat menjadi berbeda? Bagaimana kemudian masyarakat mempersepsikannya? Paper ini bertujuan untuk melihat bagaimana sikap dan pandangan masyarakat Banjar terhadap Ulama-Difabel yang turut serta dalam kegiatan keagamaan maupun kemasyarakatan. Kajian ini bersifat kualitatif dengan pendekatan etnografi. Pisau analisisnya menggunakan teori Social Model of Disability. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa meskipun pemerintah telah meratifikasi Undang-Undang Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor 19 Tahun 2011 tentang Pengesahan CRPD, tetapi hal itu tidak bisa disebut sebagai satu-satunya alasan terbentuknya paradigma inklusif yang berkembang dalam masyarakat, yang  kemudian mempengaruhi cara pandang masyarakat secara dominan, tetapi lebih dari itu, masyarakat Banjar memaknai keberadaan Ulama-Difabel sebagai fenomena transenden, karena dipengaruhi oleh pandangan-pandangan normatif, metafisik dan teologis (Islam Banjar) yang kemudian keduanya saling mendorong terbangunnya konstruksi sosial berparadigma Social Model of Disability pada masyarakat Banjar. Fenomena ini juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor seperti; pemahaman masyarakat terhadap kondisi difabel itu sendiri, budaya, pendidikan, dan doktrin keagamaan yang diterima.


Keywords


Diffable-Scholars; Culture; Banjar Society; Disability Studies.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18592/khazanah.v17i2.3215

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