• Z. Fikri Lecture Philosophy at lAIN Antasari Banjarmasin




Critical epistemology, phenomenalism, external world


In this essay 1 examine one model of critical episternologies, namely the phenomenalism. It ts a form of anti-realism; the phenomenalist denies the existence of a physical world when it is unperceived. I argue that the phenomenalist does not provide us with a meaningful and useful advancement in our understanding of experience and the world surroundings us. Against them i say that the appearances of physical objects are dependent on the nature of the object it-self, the condinons of perceiver and the light falls into the object, The notion of standard conditions put forward by the phenomenalist lead them into favouritism and committed to representationalism


Armstrong, D.M. Perception and the Physical World, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 3rd Impression 1966.

Audi, Robert. Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge, London & New York, Routledge, 1998.

Ayer, A.J. The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge, London, Macmlllan, 1940.

Ayer, A J The P.oblem of Knowledge London, Penguin Books, 1990.

Berkeley. Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues, Oxford & New York, Oxford University Press, 1996.

Berlin, Isaiah. "Empirical Propositions and Hypothetical Statements". Mind, New Series, Vol. 59 No. 235 (Jul. 1950), 289-312.

Bonjour, Laurence. "Epistemological Problems of Preception", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2001 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archieves/fall2001/entries/perception-episprob/

Wilson, Fred. "John Stuard Mill'. The Stanford. URL= http://plato.stanford.edu/archieves/fall2001/entries/mill/>

Chisholm, Roderick M. Perceiving: A Philosophical Study, Ithaca & New York, Cornell University Press, 5th Printing 1968.

Dancy, Jonathan. Berkeley: An Introduction, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1987.

-------. An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology, Oxford, Blackwell, 1993.

Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy, edited by John

Cottingham, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Russell, Bertrand. ff1Story of Western Philosophy, London, Routledge, 2000.

Sellars, Wilfrid. 'Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind' in Minnesota Studies in The Philosophy of Science, Vol. I: The Foundations of Science and the Concepts of Psychology and Psychoanalysis, edited by Herbert Feigl and Michael Scriven, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1956, 253-329.

How to Cite

Fikri, Z. (2019). EPISTEMOLOGY: ARGUMENTS AGAINST PHENOMENALISM. Khazanah: Jurnal Studi Islam Dan Humaniora, 4(1), 111–127. https://doi.org/10.18592/khazanah.v4i1.3173